Typhoid fever is an infectious disease caused by a bacteria salmonella typhosa. The infection is transmitted through the faecal - oral route i.e. by consumption of food water or milk contaminated with intestinal contents. It may affect all age groups but commonly occurs in children. The incidence of typhoid fever is greatly reduced due to improved sanitation and inoculation.
Antibiotic therapy has shortened the duration of fever in typhoid to a few days as compared to 3 to 4 weeks in the past.
As the patient is actually ill and anorexic, a high energy, high protein, full fluid diet is recommended in the beginning. Small meals are given at frequent intervals of 2 to 3 hours. Sufficient intake of fluids and salts should be ensured.
As soon as the fever comes down, a blend, low fibre, soft diet which is easily digested and absorbed should be given to the patient.
Well cooked, well meshed, sieved, bland, semi-solid foods like
» Rice with curd
» Kheers and
» Custard may be given.
Blend, readily digested food affords physiological rest to the alimentary tract. In the beginning, small quantities of food at two - three hours interval will provide adequate nutrition without overtaxing the digestive system at any one time. As the condition of the patient improves, larger meals may be given.
There is a loss of tissue protein which may amount to as much as 250 to 500 grams of muscle tissue a day.
Plenty of juices, soups, beverages and plain water (2.5 to 5liters desirable)
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