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Typhoid
 
 

Typhoid fever is an infectious disease caused by a bacteria salmonella typhosa. The infection is transmitted through the faecal - oral route i.e.  by consumption of food water or milk contaminated with intestinal contents. It may affect all age groups but commonly occurs in children. The incidence of typhoid fever is greatly reduced due to improved sanitation and inoculation. 

Antibiotic therapy has shortened the duration of fever in typhoid to a few days as compared to 3 to 4 weeks in the past. 

   
DIET MANAGEMENT
 
 

As the patient is actually ill and anorexic, a high energy, high protein, full fluid diet is recommended in the beginning. Small meals are given at frequent intervals of 2 to 3 hours. Sufficient intake of fluids and salts should be ensured. 

As soon as the fever comes down, a blend, low fibre, soft diet which is easily digested and absorbed should be given to the patient. 

Well cooked, well meshed, sieved, bland, semi-solid foods like 

» Khichri 

» Rice with curd

» Kheers and

» Custard may be given.

Blend, readily digested food affords physiological rest to the alimentary tract. In the beginning, small quantities of food at two - three hours interval will provide adequate nutrition without overtaxing the digestive system at any one time. As the condition of the patient improves, larger meals may be given. 

Foods to avoid
   
High fibre foods like whole grain cereals and their products
Whole wheat flour and cracked wheat 
Whole pulses 
Pulses with husk 
All raw and strongly flavoured vegetables like cabbage, capsicum, turnip, radish, onion and garlic.  
Fried food items such as pakoras, halwas and laddoos.
Chemical irritants such as condiments, spices, pickles, relishes and chutneys
   
DO YOU KNOW ?  Typhoid Fever leads to:
 

There is a loss of tissue protein which may amount to as much as 250 to 500 grams of muscle tissue a day.

   
 
Body stores of glycogen are quickly depleted and water electrolyte balance  is disturbed.
   
 
The intestinal tract is highly inflamed and irritable and diarrhoea, is therefore a frequent complication which interferes with the absorption of nutrients.
   
 
Ulceration in intestines may be so severe that hemorrhage and even perforation of intestines may occur
   
 
Extensive changes in liver with complicated diseases of the gall bladder and bile passages may occur
   
Foods recommended
 

Plenty of juices, soups, beverages and plain water (2.5 to 5liters desirable)

   
 
Milk and milk based beverages
   
 
Low fiber foods such as refined cereals and their products, dehusked pulses, well cooked fruits, vegetables in soft and puree form and potatoes .
   
 
Foods providing proteins of high biologic value e.g. eggs, soft cheeses, tender meats, fish, poultry etc.
   
 
Plain gelatin based desserts, sugars, honey and jams.
   
A DAYS SAMPLE DIET PLAN FOR A TYPHOID PATIENT
 
Mohit, aged 10 years, is a son of a government servant. He was running high fever which was diagnosed as typhoid and subsequently treated with antibiotic therapy. Now his fever is under control and there is also improvement in his appetite. A days diet for him is planned below
   
 
Personal data
Age
10 years
Sex 
Male
Physical Activity
Bed Rest
Socio economic status
MIG
Food habits
Non - vegetarian
Physiological condition
Recovering from typhoid fever
 
 
Recommended dietary allowances
Energy
2420 kcal
2%">Protein
81 grams
Vitamin A 
600 µg retinol
Vitamin C
40 mg
 
Food Plan
Meal
Menu
Early morning
Milk biscuits
Breakfast
Suji porridge
 
Boiled eggs
Mid morning
Paneer sandwiches
Lunch
Tomato soup
 
Washed mung pulse & Spinach khichri
 
Potato raita
Tea time 
Ice cream
Dinner
Mixed vegetables & pulses
 
Chicken noodles
 
Stewed apple with custard
   
         
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